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去中心化点对点网络Tau-Chain开发者:以太坊的图灵完备本质上不安全

萌大大 发布在 区块链 1 5301

Tau-Chain是一个去中心化的点对点网络,由一个去中心化算力市场衍生而来,Tau是一种特殊的编程语言。Ohad asor是从2015年初就全职投入到该项目中的开发者,他这样解释:“Tau就像一个去中心化的App Store,允许运行来自Tau链的应用程序。”Tau也像一个去中心化的GitHub,因为它的可判定性,它还具备进一步扩展的能力,而这是与图灵完备的语言最重要的差别。

在前不久的The DAO被攻击事件发生后,以太坊可能存在的潜在安全风险得到了前所未有的关注。一位资深区块链开发者说:以太的初衷是靠按步数收费来避免无限循环,来做到不必依靠代码审核。The DAO出问题的部分代码非常简单,还远远算不上复杂的逻辑,看出问题也很容易。这次的事件涉及了以太的根基,以太的自动化发布合约仅仅关注了无限循环问题,很多特征都是围绕步数收费理念做的,但这可能是错误的方向。

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同样,Ohad asor认为,

网络应该具有随着时间变化的能力,图灵完整性本质上是不安全的,因为其初始版本就是完成版本。

我们之前对Tau-Chain知之甚少。最近,我们访谈了Tauchain的创始人Ohad,他强调了Tau与以太坊的差别,“以太坊使用了图灵完整性,而Tau更喜欢一致性和可判定性,而不是描述性。”

同时, Ohad透露,已经有一些IT巨头尝试联系他们,开发团队也已经从VC融资,不打算在公共链项目上盈利。待公共链成功后,可为企业开发私链,可获得更多的可持续的收入。

为了让大家更好理解什么是Tau-Chain,我们保留了英文版本,访谈全文如下:

8btc:请简单的说明一下Tau-Chain是什么? Tau-Chain与以太坊的区别是什么?请用不懂技术的读者也能理解的方式进行说明。

Ohad Asor : Tau is a unique programming language that contains a built-in blockchain and DHT networks. The Tau-chain is able to generalise any collaborative work. It provides ultimate information sharing capabilities, with rich ways to query data, infer new information, and act collaboratively. It may serve as a universal source of trustable information,
as a collaborative source of knowledge, source code, and rules, in a form that is both machine and human readable and processable. It offers a ground in which sciences can be unified, and, more importantly, people’s thoughts can be met and unified cleanly.
Tau是一种特殊的编程语言,它包含了一种内置的区块链和DHT网络。Tau-chain能够概括所有的协同工作。它具有最终的信息共享功能,并且具有很多查询数据,推断新信息以及采取协同行动的方式。它可以作为可信赖信息的一种通用来源,也能作为知识、源代码和规则的一种协作源,并且无论是机器还是人类都可以读取和处理。它还提供了一种基础,具有统一的科学,更重要的是,人们的想法能够被彻底满足和实现统一。

The differences between Tau-Chain and Ethereum are mainly three:
• Self defining (see image). Bitcoins and Ethereum protocols are fixed, therefore it cannot be changed in many cases, or a changes might require a fork which might be a quite insecure operation. As an example, what if someone finds a better blockchain algorithm, would Ethereum & Bitcoin be able to migrate? Or, what if Bitcoin had a built-in and secure way to deal with the block size crisis, as a special case of defining the protocol? The network should have the ability to change with time. Any trial to predict the parameters beforehand will eventually fail. For that, the code of the client itself has to come from the blockchain, and we have to be able to make sure that this code is safe, and is doing what is intended to do. This is why for being self-defining we must have our special logic, as we describe below.
Tau-chain与以太坊的不同之处有三:
1.自定义:比特币和以太坊协议都是固定的,因此在许多案例中不能被改变,或者改变需要分叉进行,而这会很不安全。例如,假如有人找到了一种更好的区块链算法,以太坊和比特币能够进行迁移吗?或者,假如比特币拥有一种内置的安全的方法来处理区块链大小危机,作为定义协议的一个特例,又会怎样?网络应该具有随着时间变化的能力。任何事先预测参数的试验都将会失败。因此,客户端本身的代码必须来自区块链,我们必须能够确保这些代码的安全以及做它应该做的事。因此,为了自定义,我们需要有自己的独特逻辑,就如我们以上所述。
• Context separation – on Ethereum all nodes run the same code. What can therefore be the computational power of the whole Ethereum network (for code, not mining)? It cannot be no more than one single home computer. This is because all nodes must run exactly same code, as part of the process of verifying the blockchain. On Tau every user can decide which chain or application to run, given they all run the root chain, which contains the definition of the network (that might change with time, as above).
语境分离——以太坊的所有节点运行的代码全部相同。那么以太坊网络的计算能力又是什么呢?它不可能仅仅是一个家用计算机。这是因为所有的节点必须准确地运行相同的节点,这是区块链验证程序的一部分。而Tau,鉴于所有用户运行的都是根链,每一位用户都能够决定运行哪一个区块链或者应用程序,包括该网络的定义(可能会随着时间而改变)
Logic: Ethereum uses Turing completeness, while Tau prefers consistency and decidability instead of expressibility. This tradeoff is rooted in deep logical results such as Godel’s incompleteness theorems and the Halting Problem. Trust worthiness in Ethereum smart contracts can be exploited by crafted inputs, there can be both good and bad inputs so eventually highly unexpected behaviors will come along.
Tau uses a logic which is consistent and decidable (specifically, Martin-Lof Type Theory). This means that all true statements about code can be proved, and the proofs can be trusted. One can supply requirements for software, and automatically verify that given code meet those requirements. By that one can predetermine code’s behavior and have a mathematical proof that it meets its requirements, so no undesired behavior can possibly happen, as long as it is formalised in Tau’s language.
逻辑:以太坊使用了图灵完整性,而Tau更喜欢一致性和可判定性,而不是描述性。这种权衡是植根于深刻的逻辑结果,例如哥德尔不完备定理和停机问题。以太坊智能合约的信任价值可以被精心设计的输入所利用。输入可好可坏,所以最终可能会有意想不到的结果。Tau使用了一种一致的并且可决定的逻辑(具体来讲就是,Martin-Lof类型的理论)。这就意味着有关代码的所有真实陈述可以被证明,并且可以被信任。人们可以对软件提出要求,一旦代码满足这些要求便会自动进行验证。这样就可以预先决定好代码的行为,还有一个数学证明,所以只要正式成为Tau编辑语言的一部分,就不会出现不受欢迎的行为。

More advanced explanation: Turing completeness is inherently insecure because make it perfect at the first version. After the network begins to function, it’s too late to fix or improve. As the network is self defining and change with time, it does need to have some fixed core, and the core is the language and its running as a computer program.
更高级的解释:图灵完整性本质上是不安全的,因为其初始版本就是完成版本。网络在开始运行以后,再想修改或者提升就太迟了。因为网络是自定义并且随着时间变化的,它确实需要有一些固定的核心,核心就是其语言及其运行的计算机程序。

8btc:你能解释一下IDNI吗?

Ohad Asor : IDNI stands for Intelligent Decentralized Network Initiatives, as we deal with such kind of technologies. We develop Tau-Chain which is a peer to peer network with a special language, as we’ll describe. Over Tau-Chain we will develop Agoras which is includes a currency and futuristic markets. Later we will develop Routers.Space, an initiative to free and decentralize the internet by sending routers (like phones) to space.

IDNI是‘智能去中心化网络方案’的缩写,我们处理的就是这种类型的技术。我们开发了Tau-Chain,这是一种使用了特殊语言的点对点网络.我们将会在这个网络上开发Agoras,Agoras包括一种货币和未来的市场。之后我们还会开发Router.Space,该项目将会通过向空间发送路由器(如手机)来将互联网解放和去中心化。

8btc:当初着手做这个项目是出于什么原因?从什么时候开始开发该项目?当中有什么构想、计划的变化吗?变化是由于什么原因?

Ohad Asor : We started with a project called Zennet, a public, distributed, and decentralized Supercomputer. The decentralized computer system was to offer the ability to buy or sell idle computer power by or to third parties. These resources were pooled together and could be used for number crunching and other operations. This project was a good lesson for us, but as our scope widened we started the development of a different system with a highly bigger scope. Among the wide array of operations, the new system shall also include all previous operations with much greater flexibility. Tau-Chain was created.

我们最初创建了一个叫做Zennet的项目,这是一个公共的分布式并且去中心化的超级计算机。这个去中心化计算机系统目的是为了向第三方提供购买或出售闲置计算能力的能力。这些资源都集中在一起,可以用于数据处理和其他操作。这个项目给了我们很多经验,但是随着我们的视野变广,我们开始开发另一种不同的系统。新系统包括非常广泛的操作程序,还包括之前所有的操作,并且灵活性更高,这时候,Tau-chain诞生了。
Tau serves as a universal source of trustable information, as a collaborative source of knowledge, source code, and rules, in a form that is both machine and human readable and processable. It offers a ground in which sciences can be unified, and, more importantly, people’s thoughts can be met and unified cleanly. There have not been many changes to the plan, the vision has always been the same whilst creating this system.

Tau-chain是一个通用的可信赖的信息来源,还是一个知识、源代码和规则的协作源,并且还具有机器和人工都能够读取和处理的形式。它提供了一个能够统一科学的基础,更重要的是,人们的想法能够被很清楚地满足和统一。目前的计划没有出现改变,我的愿景与当初创立之时一样。

mathematically there will be always be infinitely many statements that cannot be neither proved nor disproved. Things can be provably correct or provably wrong at the same time, for example, stating “I’m able to decide whether Turing complete code is secure” (while providing some formal definition of security) is almost always a self-contradictory sentence (cf. Rice theorem).
从数学上讲,有无限多的语句是既无法证明也无法反驳。事物可以同时保证正确或者保证错误。例如,“我能决定是否图灵完整代码是安全的” 这句话几乎总是一个自相矛盾的句子。

8btc:目前除了以太坊之外,据您所知,是否有其他与TauChain相类似或者解决同样问题的项目?

Ohad Asor : Some projects try to offer a decidable language dedicated for contracts, but Tau is way more than that. It is meant to be a general purpose programming language, and not only a programming language. It can serve as a universal language that is able to describe any idea without ambiguity and without contradiction, if very simple checks are performed and can be performed by a computer.
一些项目试图为合约专门提供一种可决定的编程语言,但是Tau远不止这些。我们的是一种通用的编程语言。这种用通用的语言能够清晰且无矛盾地所有想法,只需要进行几次非常简单的检查,并且都是由计算机进行的。

8btc:Agoras的去中心化算力交易平台,能实现怎么样的功能,请用平易易懂的方式说明具体的商业模式,商业前景。Agoras是否能与微软,亚马逊的云计算平台竞争?竞争优势是什么?

Ohad Asor : Agoras is an application over Tau, being first and foremost a smart currency. Like an intelligent assistant running on your computer and following your rules, while being able to communicate with other such peers as well. It can automatically review contracts and decide whether they fit your criterias or not, for example. Business that don’t need a public arena to take place, can take place between two Agoras clients. That thanks to the decidability of the Tau language.

Agoras是Tau上的一个应用程序,它是一种智能货币。就像是一位在计算机上运行并遵循你的规则的智能助手,同时还能够与其它的这种类型的同事进行交流。例如,Agoras能够自动检查合约,决定它们是否符合你的标准。那些不需要在公共场合进行的商业能够在两个Agoras客户之间进行。这要多亏Tau语言的可判定性。

In addition, Agoras will offer several markets besides being merely a currency. The three of them we currently plan to develop are: 另外,Agoras将会作为货币,还会提供几个市场。我们目前计划开发其中的三个: 1. Hiring programmers in our innovative way that eliminates the need of trust. One can publish an automatic reward to whoever writes code that meets given requirements. 2. Renting computational resources, like AWS. This is a huge market being a major bottleneck and such that centralized entities cannot compete with a decentralized network. 3. Intelligent decentralized search engine, like Baidu/Google, but in a way that the database is open to all, therefore queries can be much more complex and informative.

1.使用我们的创新型方式(消除了对信任的需求)聘用程序员。凡是编写满足给出的要求的代码的程序员都能够自动获得奖励。

2.出租计算机资源,像AWS。这是一个巨大的市场,但存在很大的瓶颈,中心化实体无法与去中心化网络相比。

3.智能去中心化搜索引擎,像百度/谷歌那样,但是数据库却向所有人开放,因此查询可能会更加负责,信息量更广。

8btc:什么时候上线TauChain?

Ohad Asor : It’s quite impossible to predict, but more like months rather years.

这很难预测,但是应该需要几个月的时间,而不是几年。

8btc:项目开发技术难度高,甚至不能保证开发成功,其中最艰难的部分是什么?

Ohad Asor : Fortunately those all ideas come down to writing a compiler to a quite simple programming language. Writing such a compiler isn’t a very big project. But the difficulty is that we have to

幸运的是,这些想法的编辑器使用了一种相当简单的编程语言。编写这种编辑器并不是一项很大的项目。困难之处在于我们必须这样做。

8btc:您对中国市场怎么看?您是怎么看待最近几年中国的数字货币和区块链行业发展的?另外,在中国市场是否有相关的推广计划(比如何时上线中文官网等等)?

Ohad Asor : The Chinese people are very respected and important. We all share the role of making a better future. Tau breaks the language barrier and allows ultimate knowledge sharing between cultures as between different disciplines of science. Since Tau can actually comprehend the ideas expressed in its language, and its language itself is multilingual (you can write Tau code in Chinese characters too, for example, just like the languages of the Semantic Web). You could even ask a question in Chinese, and automatically find an answer given in another language without the need of translation, but only by comparing the structure of the information.

中国人民非常令人尊敬并且非常重要,我们共同承担着创造更好未来的责任。Tau打破了语言的障碍,使根本的文化知识共享就像不同学科的科学的共享那样。Tau事实上可以理解其语言表达的想法,它的语言本身是使用多种语言的(你同样可以使用中文编写Tau代码,例如,就像是语义网那样)。你甚至可以用中文提问,然后自动找到一种其他语言给出的答案,无需翻译,不过只是通过比较信息的结构。

8btc:在2015年8月的cointelegraph的采访中,您的合作人Mr.HunterMinerCrafter曾说过:“整个比特币协议很容易在Tau链上实现”。它是指可实现比特币区块链与Tau链之间的跨链交易,还是Tau链可成为比特币的侧链?

Ohad Asor : Bitcoin’s code can be created or rebuilt in Tau language. As long as the protocol is the same and the communication methods are the same, it is essentially no different than other Bitcoin clients. Much like Bitcoin can be created in c++, c and Java programming languages. To have new features that are incompatible with Bitcoin’s protocol, a different coin will have to be created. And that’s why we do Agoras.
比特币代码可以通过Tau语言来创建或者重新构建。只要是协议相同,沟通方式相同,基本与其他比特币客户端没有什么不同。就像比特币可以用C++,C和Java编程语言来创建一样。为了获得不兼容比特币协议的新功能,必须创建一种不同的货币,这就是我们为什么要创建Agoras。

发文时比特币标准价格 买价:¥4566.47 卖价:¥4564.33
稿源:巴比特资讯(http://www.8btc.com/tauchain-agoras) 版权声明: by nc" sa 作者保留权利。文章为作者独立观点,不代表巴比特立场。

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    江南梅SH 163 天前

    Tauchain中国粉丝群 203884141,可及时获得一手消息。
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